Volvo has produced seven demonstration trucks with nine litre diesel engines modified to operate on seven different types of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels.
These FM trucks were exhibited for the first time in Stockholm.
They were operated on the seven following renewable fuels/fuel combinations:
- Bio-diesel, produced by the esterification of vegetable oils. (Rape seed oil and sunflower seed oil are the most common raw materials in Europe.)
- Biogas, largely comprised of hydrocarboned methane. It can be extracted in sewage treatment works, at garbage dumps, and at other sites at which biodegradable materials are found.
- Biogas + bio-diesel, combined in separate tanks and injection systems. Ten per cent of bio-diesel, or synthetic diesel, is used for achieving compression ignition. The biogas in this alternative is in a cooled and liquid form that increases its range.
- Dimethyl ether – a gas that is handled in liquid form under low pressure. DME is produced through the gasification of biomass.
- Ethanol/Methanol. Methanol is produced through the gasification of biomass and ethanol through the fermentation of crops rich in sugar and starch.
- Synthetic Diesel – a mixture of synthetically manufactured hydrocarbon produced through the gasification of biomass. Synthetic diesel can be mixed with conventional diesel fuel without problem.
- Hydrogen gas + Biogas The hydrogen gas is mixed in small volumes with compressed biogas (eight per cent volume). Higher mixture levels are also possible. The hydrogen gas can be produced through the gasification of biomass or electrolysis of water.